samedi 2 juillet 2016

Instructions essentielles pour temps difficiles


Khenpo Gangshar Wangpo

Khenpo Gangshar Wangpo (né en 1925), fut un des maîtres de Chogyam Trungpa (1939-1987), Thrangu R., Déshoung R. et d’autres. Khenpo Gangshar naquit dans la famille du régent (tib. rgyal tshabs) de Shéchen Gyurme Pema Namgyal (1871-1926). Sa mère Otso était la nièce du Shéchen Gyaltsab. Shéchen Gyaltsab était un disciple de Jamgon Kongtrul Lodrö Thayé (1813 - 1899) et le maître de Jamgon Kongtrul II (kar sras kong sprul 1902–1952), Jamgon Kongtrul de Séchen (zhe chen kong sprul pad+ma dri med legs pa'i blo gros (1901-c.1960), Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö (1893-1959) et de Dilgo Khyentsé R. (1910-1991). Quand son père mourut (en 1926), sa mère se fit nonne et l’éducation de Gangshar Wangpo fut confiée à Jamgon Kongtrul II[1], par ailleurs le fils de Karmapa XV Khakhyap Dorjé (1871–1922).

Khenpo Gangshar devint un des six professeurs principaux de Séchen. Trungpa R. le rencontra pour la première fois à l’âge de 13 ans (1952 ?) à Séchen. Lorsqu’un de ses tuteurs mourra en 1956, il invita Khenpo Gangshar pour prendre en charge le programme d’études. En automne 1957, à cause de la dégradation de la situation politique au Tibet, il changea radicalement le programme d’études en le simplifiant considérablement et en l’ouvrant à tous, laïcs et femmes compris, en préparation des temps difficiles à venir[2]. Il instruisait tous ceux qui voulaient bien recevoir son instruction. Il se rendit dans les ermitages, pour inviter les yogis à descendre dans les villages pour aider.[3]

On raconte que deux ans après son arrivée au monastère de Sourmang (en 1958 ?), il tomba très malade et faillit mourir.[4] Selon les témoignages, sa survie serait dû à un genre de miracle[5] et il fut considéré comme un "revenant" (tib. ‘das log). Il aurait changé radicalement de vie, rendant ses vœux, prenant une compagne, dormant peu et enseignant le strict minimum[6] : des introductions (tib. ngo sprod) de type mahāmudrā et dzogchen et dans un style radicalement nouveau[7].

Dézhung Rinpoché (1906-1987) en donne un exemple dans le livre A saint in Seattle de David P. Jackson. L’été 1956, Khenpo Gangshar était invité pour enseigner le Guhyagarbha Tantra à la demande de Dilgo Khyentsé R. au monastère de Lhagyal. Malgré son jeune âge, Khenpo Gangshar fit une grande impression sur tous.[8]

L’été de 1957, Dézhung Rinpoché reçut une lettre de Khenpo Gangshar lui demandant de venir en urgence. Dézhung Rinpoché hésita à cause de la conduite controversée de Khenpo Gangshar, mais la lettre mentionna que Khenpo Gangshar viendrait en personne à Tharlam, s’il ne venait pas lui-même. Dézhung Rinpoché craignait pour la réputation de Tharlam et décida de venir le voir.

En août 1957, Khenpo Gangshar se rendit au monastère de Thrangu dans le sud du Gakhok. C’est là que Dézhung Rinpoché le revit. La conduite de Khenpo Gangshar devenait de plus en plus celle d’un mahāsiddha. Il était torse nu.[9] A tous ceux réunis, il donna une Introduction (tib. ngo sprod) :
« Khenpo Kangshar was there, giving his disciples a direct introduction to the nature of mind . . . During these teachings, the master suggested that the students remove their garments. Everyone except Dezhung Rinpoche and one senior lama of the karma Kagyü tradition, the Sangyay Nyenpa Trulku (the brother of Dilgo Khyentse[10]), did so. The master had at first turned to Dezhung Rinpoche and politely suggested “If you wouldn’t mind just removing your robes . . . ” Dezhung Rinpoche removed his upper shirt and sat waiting, and this was enough for Khenpo Kangshar. Later Dezhung Rinpoche said, “If he had given me a further direct command, of course I would have obeyed.” Dezhung Rinpoche had studied the Guhyagarbha Tantra under Khenpo Kangshar the previous year and viewed him as the Buddha. He could not disobey his order. » (A Saint in Seattle, page 214.)
Khenpo Gangshar déclara ouvertement avoir réalisé les siddhis. Quand Dézhung Rinpoché lui demanda de montrer des signes de réussite, le khenpo répondit qu’il avait en effet obtenu l’accès directe au mode d’être de l’esprit naturel (tib. gnyug sems gnas lugs mngon sum du rtogs pa'i dngos grub) qui ne se montre pas par des signes extérieurs[11].

Certains furent très inquiets de sa conduite controversée et un jour quelqu’un fonça sur lui en brandissant une épée criant « Aujourd’hui est le jour ! ».

L’hiver 1957, il retourna à Séchen pour affronter les événements tout en continuant son activité[12]. Il aurait été arrêté et emprisonné par les chinois. Pema Chödron, disciple de Chogyam Trungpa suggère qu’il aurait affronté les dangers sciemment.[13]

Khenpo Gangshar à gauche, Chogyam Trungpa à droite

Face au danger chinois, Khenpo Gangshar prônait la non-violence. Avec Trungpa Rinpoché il aurait fait faire une photo, pour montrer aux Tibétains comment se rendre quand les chinois arriveraient.

Les instructions données par Khenpo Gangshar au monastère de Thrangu en août 1957 ont fait l’objet de deux textes, une version résumée (The Concise Mind Instructions Called Naturally Liberating Whatever You Meet) et une version plus longue (Naturally Liberating Whatever You Meet: Instructions to Guide You on the Profound Path tib. phrad tshad rang grol), que l’on trouve commentées dans Vivid Awareness, The Mind Instructions of Khenpo Gangshar (Shambhala 2011).

Face aux temps difficiles qu’attendaient le peuple Tibétain, Khenpo Gangshar, avait une double approche : la non-violence[14] et les instructions sur la nature de l’esprit, rendues accessibles à tous. Rappellons-nous qu'Atiśa avait aussi reçu des instructions pour affronter les difficultés de son voyage au Tibet.

Voici un lien des instructions de Khenpo Gangshar avec une version abrégée commentée.


***

[1] Born in Tibet, Chogyam Trungpa

[2] « He explained in simple terms how necessary it was to realize the times we had reached. We might no longer be allowed to perform our rituals, but this would not destroy the fundamental teachings that the Buddha had given us, nor the integrity of the Tibetan people. » Born in Tibet

[3] Source Voir aussi :
« He told them that they must give more help to the lay people who had no opportunity to study. The divisions between the different schools must be abandoned. They must give the fundamental training on how to take refuge in the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha and how to develop the four "divine stations," namely loving kindness, spiritual joy, compassion, and equanimity. Concerning equanimity, he stressed that human rights and nonviolence were particularly important in the anxious times that we were going through. » Born in Tibet

[4] « Then, in the summer of 1957, the khenpo had not been feeling well and needed a change of atmosphere. As Kangshar's close disciple Chogyarn Trungpa Trulku related in his autobiography, the khenpo traveled up into the mountains and visited the holy snow-crested mountain Doti Gangkar. According to legend, originally, in the golden age, the whole mountain had been covered with snow and had shone like a diamond; in the following age it became like an onyx (or gzi stone?) in which light and darkness were mixed; and in the final age, it would become blue-black, like iron. Then everything would be dark and the age of religion in Tibet would be over. When they reached the top of the mountain and saw that the snowfields were melting and great expanses of dark rock were showing, this left a deep impression on the master. He became seized with the terrible urgency of preparing for the great dark age ahead. Khenpo Kangshar quickly recovered his health and devoted himself completely to teaching. » A Saint in Seattle, p. 212

[5] « While his body was resting in samadhi, Trungpa Rinpoche sat vigil. At one moment Trungpa's movement caused a slight breeze, which revived Khenpo Gangshar. » Source internet

[6] « He recommended the old Kadampa tradition (of blo sbyong, mind-training) for developing loving-kindness, and taught that the doctrine of loving-kindness should be combined in practice with the Mahamudra and Atiyana methods for meditating on the ultimate. » A Saint in Seattle, p. 213

[7] « News had reached Thalam about the unusual teachings he had been giving at Surmang. He convoked large public meetings. He had also begun to practice tantric rites openly and literally, like a realized adept. Many monks and 'nuns who had been in retreat for years he suddenly called back into normal life. Many he encouraged, directly or indirectly, to disrobe. Some people later interpreted these actions as showing great foresight in preparing them for the radical secularizing changes that were just around the corner; others attributed them to his enlightened siddhis. But a few remained skeptical about his behavior and strongly opposed radical breaches of the monastic rule. "The khenpo has gone mad!" they muttered. » A saint in Seattle, p. 211

[8] A saint in Seattle, p. 208

[9] « The master was completely changed. His eyes were alight, he was unclothed from the waist up, and he moved about airily as if transported by sublime insight. » A Saint in Seattle, p. 213

[10] On note au passage que le tulkou de Sangyé Nyenpa (dge legs sgrub pa'i nyi ma, 1897-1962 ) de l’époque fut le frère aîné de Dilgo Khyentsé R.

[11] « Khenpo Kangshar replied, "I have achieved siddhi. But it is the inner siddhi of directly realizing the ultimate, Primordial Mind. Such siddhis of the mind are not to be displayed outwardly." » A Saint in Seattle

[12] « The continued activities of Mkhan po Gang shar dbang po at Zhe chen monastery in late 1958 or even early 1959 are mentioned in rhe memoirs of Aten. See Jamyang Norbu (1979), p. 124: ‘The abbot of Shichen [Zhe chen] monastery, a venerable old monk called Gongshar [Gang shar] , gave a special initiation called the Mani Lung to all the people in the area. After this initiation, and at rhe behest of some devotees, he also initiated the people into rhe mysteries of rhe Sem Tri (guide for rhe mind), the most sacred Tantric initiation of the Ancient Order. Normally the people are only permitted this initiation after they have completed the five preliminaries ... but the old abbot decided that the people needed this sacred rite in these terrible times, and he wisely dispensed with the normal requirements. Thus even in our misery we were granted this great teaching, and thereafer felt we would be able to die with less bitterness in our hearts’. » A Saint in Seattle

[13] « In the Buddhist teachings, there is a lot of instruction for turning reality around. One hears advice like "Meditate on whatever provokes resentment" and "Lean into the sharp points." While Trungpa Rinpoche was still in Tibet, his teacher Khenpo Gangshar trained him in this style of living. He called it instruction in the nondual nature of reality; When we asked Rinpoche once what had happened to Khenpo Gangshar when they escaped from Tibet, he said he wasn't sure but had heard that when the rest of them were escaping to India, Khenpo Gangshar was walking toward China. » Pema Chodron, When Things Fall Apart, Heart Advice for Difficult Times-Shambhala (1996), p. 139

[14] Il est aussi l’auteur d’une prière pour pacifier les conflits armés (dmag 'khrugs zhi ba'i gsol 'debs)

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